Like I wrote about last time, it’s good – but not enough – to recognize partial charges and to figure out where they interact. SinceRead more
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Previously, I’ve been talking about how Coulomb’s law – the attraction and repulsion between charges – affects the properties of atoms, and is responsible forRead more
First of all, back to the shepherds: Oxygius, having six sheep to take care of, found he could make a bargain with two of theRead more
When it comes to carbonyl chemistry, if you have to know one reaction mechanism – and only one – it should be the 1,2 addition,Read more
5 more key concepts: Carbonyls make adjacent alkyl groups more acidic, the more electrophilic the carbonyl, the more acidic its alpha protons, carbonyls activate alkenes toward nucleophilic attack, reactivity of alpha beta unsaturated carbonyls is proportional to the stability of its enolate, enolates are nucleophiles.Read more
So given identical reactlon conditions (e.g. temperature, solvent, and electrophile) the conjugate base is always a better nucleophile.Read more