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Aldehydes and Ketones

Wittig Reaction

Some time ago, we learned how to turn alkenes into carbonyls via ozonolysis. But we haven’t yet learned how to go in the opposite direction

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Imines and Enamines

Imines are the nitrogen analogues of aldehydes and ketones, containing a C=N bond instead of a C=O bond. They are formed through the dehydration reaction

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On Acetals and Hemiacetals

(Part VI on a series of posts on the reactions of neutral nucleophiles with carbonyl compounds) When I started this series on reaction mechanisms of

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Carbonyl Chemistry: 10 Key Concepts (Part 1)

The weaker the base, the better the leaving group. Electron withdrawing groups make the carbonyl more electrophilic. Electron donors make the carbonyl *less* electrophilic. Carboxylic acid derivatives always protonate on carbonyl first. Steric bulk slows down reactions.

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Carbonyls: 10 key concepts (Part 2)

5 more key concepts: Carbonyls make adjacent alkyl groups more acidic, the more electrophilic the carbonyl, the more acidic its alpha protons, carbonyls activate alkenes toward nucleophilic attack, reactivity of alpha beta unsaturated carbonyls is proportional to the stability of its enolate, enolates are nucleophiles.

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